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Jclin Bioinformatics

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Still No Scientific Evidence To Prove That COVID-19 Can Infect Pets And Make Them ‘Carriers’

The world is facing a global emergency with the continuous spread of a novel strain of coronavirus. The World Health Organization (WHO) has already named the disease that is caused by the new novel coronavirus, COVID-19 (short for Coronavirus Disease of 2019). The virus, which can be traced all the way to the heart of Hubei province in China, has already infected tens of thousands of people all over the world, putting pressure in every continent to contain the virus and stop in from spreading in communities.

For now, only human-to-human transmission of the virus was recorded, meaning that the 2019 novel coronavirus is not expected to be contacted by animals and turn them into carriers of the highly contagious disease. If this was indeed the case, then there is higher probability that the COVID-19 can spread at a much faster rate than expected, since both humans and animals can transmit the virus from one body to another.

Dog In Hong Kong Tested ‘Weak Positive’ For Coronavirus, But Should We Be Worried?

Hong Kong has reported numerous cases of COVID-19 since December last year, and medical practitioners are working non-stop to contain the disease and perhaps develop a cure to finally end the reign of this rare virus. Recently, there was an interesting development as a dog in Hong Kong tested positive for the coronavirus. Although the animal is said to be “weak positive” since it doesn’t show any relevant symptoms of the disease, this case is highly suspect as the dog was previously owned by a Hong Kong national that suffered from the COVID-19.

In spite of these, doctors in Hong Kong said that this is not enough proof to say that animals like domesticated dogs can help spread the disease. While the family of coronavirus in general is known to infect both animals and humans, thus making animal-to-human transmission and vice-versa possible, more tests shall be performed to really say that the 2019 novel coronavirus strain is also of that kind.

In times like this, we should really be aware of the importance of handwashing as it will serve as our first line of defense against the COVID-19. Another thing that we should do is to keep our bodies healthy by eating nutritious food and avoiding any substances or practices that may weaken our immune system. Making ourselves physically fit by doing regular cardio exercises or simply buying and using a top exercise rack would be enough.

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Dust Mites : Dust Mite infestations Produce a More Harmful Type of Allergen

Dust mites are perennial household problems because they easily multiply, while their microscopic size allows them to remain invisible to human eyes. A single mated-female dust mite is capable of producing 60 to 100 eggs, usually during the last five (5) weeks of its existence.

Dusts are quite visible because they tend to accumulate. Dust accretions include not only particles of dirt, soil, grime and pollens, but also bits and pieces of textile fibers, dead skin cells, fur or feather sheddings, human hair and other minute matters.

Within walled areas, dusts settle on surfaces as well as circulate in the air. These alone are already potentially harmful as allergens.

The situation gets worse once dust particles get entrenched in carpets, curtains, mattresses, beddings and upholstered furniture. Those are the places where dust mites thrive, and subsequently produce and build-up a more harmful type of allergen.

Dust mite infestation in homes have been scientifically ascertained as a cause of allergic reactions; manifested by way of rhinitis, asthma attacks, and atopic dermatitis or eczema.

Dust Mites as Producers of a More Harmful Type of Allergen

Since dust mites feed on dander and slough, it follows that they also excrete wastes that are even more microscopic. According to scientific studies, a house dust mite is capable of producing about 2,000 fecal matters that still carry digestive enzymes. Such enzymes have been identified as the principal allergens.

In addition to their fecal wastes, dust mites also leave an even larger amount of partially digested slough already covered with the allergy-causing enzymes.

Scientific studies found out that the average life cycle of a dust mite is from 65 to 100 days. When they die, their decaying bodies remain entrenched on thick materials and upholstery; becoming additional allergens circulating within enclosures.

Eradication of Dust Mite Infestations

Although dust mites exist and thrive everywhere, studies have established that they flourish in warm and humid regions especially in dark enclosed spaces.

When thriving in such conditions, regular vacuuming does not suffice to eradicate dust mite infestations. Periodically, carpets, mattresses, thick curtains and upholstered furniture must undergo professional deep-cleaning methods to greatly reduce, if not totally eradicate dust mite infestations.

Scientifically, it has been proven that professional carpet cleaning, which usually involves steam application, can eradicate as much as 87% of dust mites inhabiting a specific area.

This is one reason why in warmer regions, carpet cleaning requires a more thorough process. More so, for living spaces unoccupied for long periods of time, such as unrented carpeted-houses, hotel rooms or second-homes that serve as vacation getaways or retreats.

Boca Grande in Florida for one, is an island community that has gained popularity as a haven for exclusive residential retreats. Second-homes are common to wealthy families wanting to escape harsh winter seasons. Prior to a family’s arrival, carpet cleaning boca grande homes require intensive processes and disinfecting solutions.

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The Importance Of Handwashing

We have always heard this, wash your hands regularly. Much like washing the dishes (find the best dishwasher under 700 here), handwashing is as important in maintaining one’s health.

After visiting the toilet there are around 200 million bacteria on your hands. If you do not wash your hands, but then touch your mouth, nose or eyes with your hands, bacteria can enter the body through mucous membranes. These germs can cause an infection, such as cold and flu. Wash hands is, therefore, very important to prevent infections. This includes a cold and the flu.

Proper handwashing! What gets left on your hands when you don’t wash properly

Proper washing of the hands can considerably reduce this risk of infection, given that bacteria are removed from the hand. This also reduces the risk of cross-contamination and reduces the risk of sick leave. This improves the hygiene level. Throughout the day you come in contact with bacteria, viruses and other pathogens. Bacteria and viruses can be transferred from one hand to the other through the hands.

Lack of Handwashing Leads t0 80% of Infections

A flu virus spreads very quickly, including sneezing and coughing. Human hands are the perfect way for viruses and bacteria to spread. The bacteria then end up in the air and on other surfaces. The hands constantly touch objects that other people have also touched with their hands: the door handle, faucets, keyboards etc. Washing your hands regularly is the most important method to prevent the spread of a flu virus.

Interesting Research About Handwashing

The Journal of Environmental Health has published a study in which four thousand people were observed while visiting a public toilet. The figures from this study indicate that more attention should be paid to hand washing. 10 percent of the four thousand people did not wash their hands at all, while 33 percent of the people washed their hands without soap. The other people used the soap, but not long enough.

Interesting facts about handwashing

  • Bacteria have the ability to survive 48 hours on a surface.
  • 80% of the infections between people are caused by the hands and 47% of the diseases are easy to prevent if the hands are washed well.
  • The mouse of the computer contains an average of 10,000 organisms per cm2. A keyboard also contains an average of 10,000 organisms per cm2.
  • When a hand is contaminated with bacteria, this can be transferred to 5 new objects or 14 other people.
  • 30% of visitors to the toilet wash their hands with soap after visiting a toilet.
  • An employee in an office comes into contact with more than 10 million bacteria every day.
  • 90% of visitors to catering establishments consider a clean toilet more important than good service.
  • A hot air dryer causes an increase in bacteria instead of a decrease.

It is therefore wise to wash your hands regularly. Also due to the fact that a flu epidemic develops every year. Washing hands has, therefore, become even more important. It is therefore important to ensure a good solution in the workplace to wash hands for both staff and visitors. It is also important that schools and healthcare institutions pay a lot of attention to this.

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Inkjet vs. Laser Printers: What’s the Difference and How Do They Work?

Anyone that’s looking to get a new printer is always faced with a fork in the road: should you get an inkjet printer or a laser one?

Unfortunately, there’s no short answer to this question. You need to understand how each one works and what purpose it suits best and then make your decision.

The most significant difference is that an inkjet printer uses ink, is the traditional choice for home users and is the ideal choice for low-volume printing.

On the other hand, a laser printer uses toner, is the more favorable choice for offices, and is the ideal one for high-volume printing.

So after you’ve decided how often you’re going to print and set your printing budget, let’s dive into how each type of printer works.

How an Inkjet Printer Works

How an inkjet printer works

When you press “Print,” the software application sends the data to be printed to the printer.

Next, the driver translates the data into a specific format that the printer understands. Moreover, it makes sure that the printer is online and available to print.

Afterward, the driver sends the data from the computer to the printer through your preferred connection such as USB, parallel, etc.

When the printer receives the data from the computer, it stores it in a buffer whose capacity ranges between 512 KB RAM or 16 MB RAM.

The buffer speeds up the printing process. And the bigger it is, the higher its capability to hold complex documents or several basic ones.

A control circuit activates the paper feed stepper motor. The stepper motor, in turn, engages the rollers to feed a sheet of paper from the tray into the printer.

When the paper is put into the proper position and fed into the printer, the print head stepper motor uses a belt to move the print head assembly across the page.

The motor stops for a fraction of a second between each spray of dots onto the paper and moves slightly to the next place where ink is ought to be sprayed.

When the pass is complete, the paper feed stepper motor drives the paper a very small distance.

This process keeps repeating until the whole page is printed. The print time of the printer is determined by this process, and that’s why it differs from one printer to another.

One printer can produce 16 PPM (Pages Per Minute) of black text but take over a minute to print one full-color, page-sized image.

When the printing is complete, the print head is parked, and the feed stepper motor turns the rollers around to push the completed page out onto the output tray.

How a Laser Printer Works

How a Laser Printer Works

When you press “Print” on your computer, smartphone, or tablet, the data is sent to your printer and stored in its memory.

The printer then starts to warm up and get ready for the printing process. That’s when you have to wait for the corona wire to heat up and transfer positive static charge to the drum.

The positive static charge begins sticking onto the surface of the drum as it starts to roll.

If you’re printing in color, your print might need more time as it would have to roll four drums for each cartridge color –Cyan, Yellow, Black, and Magenta.

The more colors your printer is capable of printing, the longer your wait would be.

After that, the printer activates the laser and beams it against a series of mirrors that reflect across the surface of the drum(s) to draw the shape of your print by using opposite negative electrical charges.

Next to the drum(s), there’s a toner cartridge and hopper that slowly release positively-charged carbon toner particles onto the rolling drum.

The toner sticks to any area carrying a negative charge while the areas with a positive one remain unaffected.

Afterward, the transfer belt rolls the paper through the printer to give it a positive charge.

The negatively-charged toner particles are pulled onto the page to form the shape of your image or text as the paper passes the drum.

Finally, a set of hot rollers called the fuser unit melts the toner onto the paper.

The paper is then pushed out onto the output tray.

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Top Health Benefits of Having a Patio

Outdoor Lounge

Patios which are set up professionally could quickly turn an extremely dull garden into an oasis. Because of this, your home gets a dose of charm. At exactly the exact same time, a patio makes it possible for you to lead a life that is joyful and may significantly enhance your well being. Ironically, contemplating their yield in the kind of joy and health, patios aren’t that expensive! You might discover affordable patio contractors in your area When you look about.

In this guide, we discuss the value of the patio as well as the substances used to construct them. So, you could begin requesting your builder the proper questions Think about this as a manual.

Why should you obtain a patio?

There are lots of reasons why you need to find a terrace installed. We have compiled the top reasons which will convince you away!

Patios may raise your levels of vitamin D

Vitamin D is very essential to produce cells and to fortify the body’s immune system. At precisely the exact same time, it reduces melancholy and promotes weight loss. But it cannot be generated by our bodies walk out in sunlight.

According to specialists, it’s healthy to have around half an hour of exposure to sunlight 3 days in a week. In the event you own a terrace you’ll have a place. You could soak up some sun.

Additionally, they may also significantly lower your levels of tension and promote good general well being.

Makes it easy for you to grill

Nutritionists recommend snacking a deck since the fats get liquified and trickle throughout while the meat cooks. Patios could turn into your grilling stains in which your friends or guests and you can hang outside. It builds strong social health as well. The meals which you could cook will make it possible for your loved ones and you to get together leading to better bonding.

In addition to this, patios are extremely low maintenance and can readily be cleaned following a get-together or even a celebration.

Outdoor comfort

There’s an endless list of advantages of paying out. A backyard patio provides a perfect chance to sit back and read a book while sipping tea to you. This may lower the level of inflammation and tension of your body. At precisely the exact same time, it might let you combat with fatigue.

In addition, you could even set up some lower planters along with other water characteristics on a terrace. In addition to that places for youngsters like a play-zone may be constructed. This may encourage the children also to devote some time in drama and to leave their telephones and tabs. Overall this promotes a life that is wholesome.

Increases the value of your Home

In the event you might choose to sell your residence, after, a well-designed and tasteful patio can significantly boost the value of your dwelling. This is because everybody loves to have a small amusement place in the home where celebrations can be hosted by them. Overall, patios won’t ever allow it to move to drain and may provide a return on the investment to you.

Patios just stretch your living room

As soon as you’ve constructed a terrace, you don’t have to sit down within your living space all the time. You can design it when you would like to where you can have fun with your family and friends.

Conclusion

There are infinite advantages of obtaining a terrace installed. Before settling for a builder, take time to observe reviews and a few suggestions from Patio Mate. Before picking out a contract take some tips from your friends/family.

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Building A Strong Social Health

Almost everyone is intuitively aware that social loneliness cannot really benefit a person and has also been scientifically proven. Although most people need an irregular withdrawal, extensive or even complete isolation, which lacks any social interaction, it damages the psyche so badly that it is even used explicitly as a torture method. Research also shows that together with the psyche, the body itself begins to suffer from the absence of social contacts. Today’s society is responsible for many problems here. Because not only the everyday life of many people complicates strong social health, much is also outsourced to social media and thus creates a self-reinforcing negative effect.

What is Social Health?

Social health in today’s society

Today’s western society often claims to be very social. That’s true, on a humanitarian level. In fact, however, there are also many negative points that are manifested primarily in the interpersonal area.

What is social health?

Ultimately, it is a simple calculation: if the psyche is doing well (through social interaction), the physique is usually doing well, and vice versa – Mens sana in corpore sano. In fact, however, social health is determined by a much larger set of factors that interact with each other:

  • Good education
  • Language skills
  • Adequate income
  • Social Security
  • (Family) cohesion
  • Satisfying lifestyle

All of these points ultimately determine the extent to which a person can achieve social health at all. An example: A person with poor education, a resulting low income, poor social security and an unhealthy lifestyle will automatically be socially less healthy than a person with all of these criteria in a positive way. The problem already begins here due to the far less secure conditions of our modern civilization, for example in the area of ​​job security.

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The application of information technology to biological problems

Bioinformatics is (broadly speaking) the application of information technology to biological problems. This term appeared for the first time in 1970 in an article written in Dutch, where it was proposed as “the study of computer processes in biotic systems”, a meaning different from that of today although, in some fields more theorists of modern bioinformatics, this definition remains valid.

In 1955 Frederick Sanger published the amino acid sequence of insulin, the first sequence of a protein to be discovered. This fundamental work (for which Sanger received the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1958), paved the way for protein sequencing. The sequencing technology, initially manual, was improved until it was fully automated by Pehr Edman in 1967. The fact that the primary structure of proteins consisted of unique sequences of amino acids was in itself an IT concept. The technology of protein sequencing and the consequent growth of the number of available sequences created computational needs:

High molecular weight protein sequencing involved the partial enzymatic digestion of proteins into peptides that were sequenced. This strategy consequently required the correct assembly of the partial sequences in a single final sequence.

The comparison of sequences of homologous proteins, that is belonging to different species descending from a common ancestor for the creation of phylogenetic trees.

At the same time computers were beginning to be available in the most advanced research centers in the USA, and their programming had been simplified thanks to the FORTRAN language (introduced by IBM in 1957). Already in the mid-1960s, Cyrus Levinthal and his group first used a computer at MIT to build a 3 D model of cytochrome C.

Some pioneers of bioinformatics, including Margaret Dayhoff and Walter Fitch, compiled the first programs for the computerized execution of the assembly of protein sequences and the comparison between sequences and the creation of phylogenetic trees.

In 1970 Saul Needleman and Christian Wunsch perfected the comparison between two sequences with the publication of an innovative algorithm for the analysis of similarities.

DNA sequencing, invented in 1977 by Allan Maxam and Walter Gilbert and perfected by Frederick Sanger, gave rise to an exponential production of gene sequences, giving further impetus to bioinformatics. The representation of DNA and protein sequences as character strings was ideal for their computerized manipulation.

Programs were created for storing sequences as digital files, for printing them, for identifying sites of restriction enzymes or sequences coding within DNA sequences, or for translating DNA sequences into sequences of amino acids. The exponential growth of DNA and protein sequences led to the creation of programs, such as BLAST, capable of rapidly comparing an unknown sequence with a bank of known sequences.

It is not possible to summarize here the enormous development of bioinformatics in the last 35 years, but it is enough to say that it has grown in parallel with the immense advances in molecular biology, genetics and protein biochemistry, as well as, of course, the progress of computer science and computers. Modern bioinformatics is divided into three main fields: *

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What is bioinformatics

Bioinformatics is a discipline found at the crossroads of biology , computer science and new technologies .

It is characterized by the application of mathematical, statistical, computational methods to the analysis of biological, biochemical and biophysical data.

The main subject of study is DNA, but with the spread of increasingly cheaper and more effective techniques for studying proteins, even the latter have become one of the favorite topics of bioinformatics.

The object of work of bioinformatics is the computer, which it uses to collect, consult, analyze biological data in order to understand biological mechanisms.

Three main sub-sectors can be identified:

  • development and implementation of tools to store, analyze and manage information;
  • analysis and interpretation of data to identify relevant information (for example, look for the recurrence of certain sequences in different genes or build three-dimensional models of proteins from the protein sequence);
  • development of new algorithms and statistical tools to verify the relationships between a large number of objects considered (for example, given the results of analysis of one hundred thousand DNA sequences with a microarray , automatically grouping them according to behavior)